Patent: De Pass (Hernard)

Britain 2500

A.D. 1875, 12th July. № 2500.

Breech-loading Fire-arms.

(This Invention received Provisional Protection only.)

PROVISIONAL SPECIFICATION left by Ernest de Pass at the Office of the Commissioners of Patents, with his Petition, on the 12th July 1875.-A communication from abroad by Eugène Hénard, of 17, Boulevart Saint Martin, Paris, France.

I, Ernest de Pass, of Fleet Chambers, 68, Fleet Street, in the City of London, Patent Agent, do hereby declare the nature of the said Invention for “Improvements in Breech-loading Fire-arms,” communicated to me from abroad by Eugène Hénard, of 17, Boulevart Saint Martin, Paris, France, to be as follows:—

Heretofore the amunition chambers or barrels of the breech cylinders of revolvers and other fire-arms after having turned for a portion of its circumference were simply brought in front of the barrel of the arm or weapon, and their movement was only a rotatory one around an axis. The result of this arrangement was that a space or division existed between the breech cylinder and the adjacent extremity of the barrel, thereby permitting a certain quantity of gas to escape from the powder, and thus diminishing the projectile force of the arm or weapon.

Now this Invention relates to an improved arrangement of moveable breech for revolvers and other repeating fire-arms, and to prevent the escape of gas from the powder. It is based upon the combination of the rotatory movement of the breech cylinder, by bringing together the barrel and the breech cylinder in such a way that the revolution of such cylinder causes the junction with and horizontal separation of the barrel and the breech cylinder.

In this arrangement the breech cylinder after having revolved a certain fraction or distance around, the horizontal axis becomes united to or compact with the barrel by a movement of transmission parallel to the same axis of one of these two parts (either the breech cylinder or the barrel), and permits one or more notches or projections formed on one of them to take into one or more corresponding depressions formed on the other; these projections are disposed around the bore and may be circular or polygonal, regular or irregular, or may form a curve of any kind in such way that instead of discontinuity or interruption between the breech cylinder and the barrel they become hermetically closed, and each amunition chamber of the cylinder is successively united with the barrel. At each fraction or portion of circumference or revolution the breech cylinder is well held up or supported at the back, and the powder is then able to produce its entire projectile force or effect without loss of gas.

In the breech there is an arrangement for uniting the periodical movement of rotation of the cylinder with the reciprocating motion of a rod or spindle, which said rod or spindle serves to drive out the spent cartridges, thus permitting a more rapid loading of the arm.

The striking or percussive force is imparted to the “cock” or hammer by means of the trigger, which works springs and set in motion notched catch pieces or clicks.

The bolting arrangement in front of the breech cylinder is held in place by the aid of a spindle or rod formed in two pieces and joined together by a screw. This bolting arrangement, the breech cylinder and the spindle or rod are kept well in place by means of abutments or projections, but at the same time permitting the rotatory movement of the breech cylinder.

A moveable plug or stopper held in place by a hinged spring serves to close or release the charge or amunition chambers from the breech 35 cylinder, in order to allow the arm to be loaded.

The movement of the cock or hammer may be divided into three priods, actions, or movements.

The breech cylinder carries in its back part as many indentations or curves as there are charge or amunition chambers.

This arrangement of breech is also applicable to guns, pistols, carbines, and other fire-arms of any calibre other than revolvers.

In another arrangement the junction of the barrel with the breech cylinder is hermetically or air-tightly closed by a movement of the barrel parallel to the axis of the breech cylinder, but in this arrangement the spindle or rod for driving out the blanks or spent cartridges is dispensed with, and the loading or unloading of the arm is effected by detaching the breech cylinder from the fittings, stays, or stock. Here the striking appliances may be varied.

In order to disengage the breech cylinder the spindle rod or mandril which is held by a spring against it is drawn out, and a toothed projection being freed the breech cylinder comes out of the arm easily.