Patent: Silas Crispin

US 50224
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 50,224, dated October 3, 1865.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, Silas Crispin, of the city, county, and State of New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Fire-Arms; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, which will enable others skilled in the art to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification.

The present invention consists in forming the breech piece or cylinder of a fire-arm in two parts or sections, so arranged as to be opened or removed from each other for the insertion of metallic cartridges therein or the removal of the-waste cases therefrom, and when a revolving breech-cylinder is used so constructed and connected as to revolve together and as one piece, the metallic cartridges, when inserted within the chamber or chambers of the breech, extending across from one section to the other with their fulminating-rims in and between the contiguous ends of the same, and the striking-hammer of the fire-arm being properly constructed and arranged to discharge the cartridges as in ordinary fire-arms.

In the accompanying plate of drawings my improvement is represented as applied to a pistol having a revolving many-chambered breech piece or cylinder, Figure 1 being a side view of the same, showing its breech-sections closed or in proper position for its discharge; Fig. 2, a similar view, showing its breech-sections opened or removed from each other; Fig. 3, a partial plan or top view of the pistol when in the position represented in Fig. 2; Fig. 4, a partial central longitudinal vertical section of Fig. 1, and Fig. 5 a side view of a pistol with the breech divided into two parts or sections at or near its front end.

a a in the drawings represent the barrel of the pistol attached to or formed with its frame b, hung by a hinge-joint, c, to and upon the lower side, d, of the stock, f, which frame and stock are held together at their upper parts, when closed by the interlocking of a spring plate, g, of the barrel-frame with the square projecting piece h of the stock.

l l represent the breech-cylinder, having a series of chambers, m m m, extending nearly through its length, and of the same size as the bore of the barrel a, formed in two parts or sections, no, with the division near the closed or rear end thereof, one of which sections, n, turns upon a shaft, p, of the barrel-frame, and the other upon a shaft, q, of the stock, but both being in the same plane and so arranged that when brought together by the closing of the barrel frame and stock, as before described, the contiguous ends of each section shall perfectly coincide with each other and their chambers, being respectively in one and the same line and as brought in turn to the barrel by the devices ordinarily employed for revolving the breech-cylinder in a straight line therewith.

In and between the two sections or parts of the breech-cylinder the metallic cartridges (represented by red lines in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 of the accompanying drawings, and of the form fully described in the specification accompanying my application for Letters Patent on an improvement in metallic cartridges, now on file in the United States Patent Office,) are inserted, they extending across from one section to the other, with their fulminating-rims held by and in the shoulders r and s of the contiguous ends of the sections, which cartridges, when brought in turn to and in the line of the barrel by and through the ordinary devices usually employed for revolving the breech-cylinder, are discharged by means of the hammer t, made of the proper shape and size to strike their fulminating-rims, the periphery of the rear section, o, being cut away at the proper points therefor, as seen at u u.

From the above it is evident that as the metallic cartridges extend from one section to the other of the breech, the two parts must necessarily revolve together and as one piece when the rear portion, o, is actuated, as above described; but in lieu thereof the sections may be secured together by dowel-pins, either inserted in one or the other, if desired or deemed expedient; and, furthermore, it is apparent that in order to insert the cartridges within the breech-cylinder its two parts must be opened from each other, as represented in Figs, 2 and 3, when the ball end of the cartridge is placed within the chamber of the front section, n, with the fulminating-rim resting 3 poll the shoulders thereof, after which the rear end of the breech is closed, its chambers passing over and incasing the projecting ends of the metallic cases of the cartridges beyond their fulminating-rims, the parts then being locked together by the spring-plate g, before referred to, and the pistol ready for use.

To remove the waste-cartridge cases it is only necessary to reopen the two parts of the cylinder, as before described for charging the chambers, when by taking hold of their projecting portions they can be easily and readily removed, as is evident without further description.

Among the many advantages resulting from the above-described arrangement or construction of the breech-cylinder of the pistol, in addition to the facility with which the waste-cartridge cases can be removed therefrom, as hereinbefore specified, may be here mentioned that the rear end of the cylinder can be entirely closed, thus protecting the cartridges from contact with the stock with which they have heretofore generally come in contact, and the objections to which are well known to all conversant with fire-arms, and, furthermore, by being thus entirely inclosed within the cylinder, are not liable to injury from any cause whatsoever.

In Fig 5 a modification of my improvement is represented, it consisting in dividing the breech-cylinder at or near its front end, which, of course, necessitates a corresponding change in the position of the fulminating-rim of the metallic cartridges and the use of an igniting rod within the upper portion of the stock, arranged in such a manner that the striking force of the hammer of the pistol shall communicate through the same with the fulminating-rim of the cartridges, as is plainly represented in the said figure.

Although I have herein particularly described my invention in connection with a pistol having a revolving chambered breech-cylinder, it is manifest that it can be as well applied to other and various forms of breech-pieces, and therefore I do not intend to limit myself to its use for any one particular form of breech piece or cylinder.

I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent—

The application to a revolver having its barrel swinging from the frame by a hinge-joint of a transversely-divided cylinder, when one section thereof is connected to the swinging barrel and the other section to the stock or frame, each being retained by its own section of the center pin, in the manner shown and described.


M. M. Livingston,
Wm. F. McNamara.