Patent: Thompson

Britain 3784

AD. 1814 № 3784.



TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, I, Javes Tuownsox, of Colebrook Terrace, Islington, in the County of Middlesex, Merchant, send greeting.

WHEREAS His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in the name and on the behalf of His most Excellent Majesty King George the Third; by His Letters Patent under the Great Seal of Great Britain,”bearing date at Westminster, the Ninth day of March, in the fifty-fourth year of His reign, did, for Himself, is heirs and successors, give and grant unto me, the said James Thomson, His especial licence that I, the said James Thomson, my exors, admors, and assigns, or such others as I, the said James Thomson, my exors, admors, and assigns, should at any time agree with, and no others, from time to time and at all times during the term of years therein expressed, should and lawfully might make, use, exercise, and vend, within England, Wales, and the Town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and also within all his Majesty’s Colonies and Plantations abroad, my Invention of “CERTAIN IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FIRE-ARMS AND THE LOCKS OF FIRE-ARMS;” in which said Letters Patent there is contained a proviso, obliging me, the said James Thomson, by an instrument in writing under my hand and seal, particularly to describe and ascertain the nature of my said Invention, and in what manner the same is to be performed, and to cause the same to be inrolled in His Majesty’s High Court of Chancery within four calendar months next and immediately after the date of the said recited Letters Patent, as in and by the same, reference being thereunto had, will more fully and at large appear.

NOW KNOW YE, that in compliance with the said proviso, I, the said James Thomson, do hereby declare that the nature of my said Invention, and the manner in which the same is to be performed, is described and ascertained in the Drawings herewith, and the following explanations thereof (that is to say):

My Invention consists in constructing fire-arms to be primed, loaded, and discharged expeditiously; also in securing the powder of the priming and charge from moisture, and in guarding against accidents from firearms and powder flasks by my improvements on the mode in which the same are to be made, constructed, and effected.

The Drawings are,—

Figure 1, a single barrelled and poli-chambered gun, with its lock, &e.

2, a ditto, shewing the left side thereof.

3, is a piece of metal containing nine chambers.

4, is a magazine gun hammer, and shewing its cavity to receive a cylindrical pin.

5, is a section of Number 4, shewing the interior of the chambers, &c. of the hammer.

6, is one view of the cylindrical pin, shewing the cavity or trough in it to contain powder for one priming; also part of the groove on it to guide and regulate its action.

7, is another view of the same cylindrical pin, shewing the whole of the said groove.

8, is a spring ketch, to be placed on the left side of the stock, for regulating the action of the chambers, Figure 3, and for keeping cach of them (successively) in its proper’ place, to be embraced by the coupling box or clip to connect them to the barrel.

9, is-a section of one chamber, shewing the mode and form in which the ends of the chambers and end of the barrel may he connected together without having a screw on the point where they come in contact, (which might be found to-get clogged by the effects of the powder,) by making the screws on the barrel and on the coupling box or clip at some distance from the chambers; also, that the chamber or chambers may be turned by a handle in-like manner as Figure 85.

10, is a view of a hammer and pan, water and air tight; also shewing the mode of-making the communication from the pan to the touch-hole in like manner tight.

10/A & 10/B are two views of a like hammer-and pan as the last, shewing more distinctly the ledge on the pan to receive the clastic washer; also that the pan may be made in various forms.

11, is a view of a washer to be. used on the ledge of the pan, and between the plate of the lock and the barrel.

12 and 18; are views of the ledge of the pan and rim of the pan, made in separate.pieces in the form of boxes, the elastic washer being first to be introduced into the cavity of Figure.12; the ledge, and Figure 18, being pressed also into. the cavity of Figure 12,having the washer between them, fastens it in its place to cover the ledge.

14, is a view of a separate washer that may be placed between the plate of the lock and the barrel to make the joint between them tight

15, is a view of a cylindrical pan and cover, which, by turning the cover, secures the pan from moisture.

16, is a ditto, with a spring in the cover, which, by acting laterally, has the same effect as the preceding

17, is a view of a gun lock; &c; which, by one motion, is cocked, the hammer shut down, and the priming furnished.

18, is a view of the left side of the hammer and cock, &e. of the preceding Figure 17.

19, is the inner. or under side, of the cock of Figure 17, shewing the manner of the. lever and its pisten, being formed and attached to it.

20, is a view of the face of the hammer, shewing the point of the pisten or plug of the chamber through the seat of the hammer also shewing the mode this magazine hammer may be used to furnish a priming by the action of the | finger and thumb on the pisten, in place of being acted upon by the lever and plug, &c. attached to the cock.

21, is a section of Figure 20, shewing the magazine chamber with the pisten and spiral spring placed in it, also the cap or cover, which, on being screwed or otherwise fastened upon the top of the hammer, is acted on by the spiral spring.

22, is another section of Figure 20, shewing a valve or hole from the magazine through the back part of the hammer for security; also shewing the opening of the valve in the scat of the hammer.

23, is a view of the pisten, its button, top, and the spring that acts thereon, shewing distinctly their forms.

24, is a view of a lock, with the cock at bearer, shewing a slide which in that position covers the touch-hole, and which remains so covered until the lock is cocked.

25, is a ditto, at cock, shewing the touch-hole then open. N.B. In these two last Figures the seat of the hammer and the pan are represented flat (as is usual) that the action of the slide may be.distinctly seen.

26, is a view of the left or inner side of a lock, shewing the

slide used to Figures 24, and 25; also a hammer, which, on being shut, primes the pan;it is on the same principle as Figure 4, with the addition of a crank to the cylindrical pin, and a stay attached to the lock for the crank to act upon.

27, is a view of the main spring of a lock, with a slide attached to it, having a similar operation as Figures 24, and 23, but simpler in the construction.

28, is a view of u cover for a gun flint to guard against fire-arms being accidentally discharged

29, 30, and 31, are views of fire-arms constructed to he loaded at the breach by means of moveable breach pins or plugs.

32, & 35, is a view of another mode of lowling fire-arms at the breach by means of a valve or plug acting on a center in the barrel.

36, A,B,C,D, are views of the sections of musket breaches, or the breach end of musket barrels, so constructed as to he loaded expeditiously with ball without any wadding or ramrod, also so as to explode the whole charge of powder more effectually than muskets on the common construction.

N.B.— These four Figures are of the dimensions of a musket barrel, but may be made of any other size, or for pistols:

The foregoing enumeration of the different Figures is intended for distinctness in describing’ the various combinations of the different parts; also to guard against such parts as are new from being pirated, or any right evaded by any different combination of such parts to produce a like effect; also for facility in referring to the different parts; likewise, that to some mechanics perhaps a reference merely to the general description and the Drawings may he sufficient to enable them to comprehend that which is requisite to make the article without going into the more particular detail of the minutia of each part.

Figures 4, 5, 6, and7, arc component parts of the hammer appertaining to Figure 1. The hammer is excavated, as is shewn by section, Figure 5, the horizontal cavity a communicating with the vertical cavity or magazine b, by the hole c, and from the cavity a there are two holes d, d, perforated in sloping directions through the seat of the hammer (in small hammers one hole may be sufficient). Figure 6, is a cylindrical pin having a groove; trough, or hollowed part e, of a size to contain the quantity of powder requisite for one priming. Figure 6, is to be introduced into the cavity a, of Figure 5, and when e is opposite to c, the trough, groove; or hollowed part e is in a situation to be filled with powder from the magazine b, and when the said trough, groove, or hollowed part e is turned round to holes d, d, it will empty its contents through them into the pan of the lock; and in any situation of this cylindrical pin in its chamber the powder in the magazine b is not liable to be exploded, and on the like principle powder flasks may be made to be extremely secure. Figure 7, is another view of the same cylindrical pin, in which is a groove f cut full half way round its circumference; when that cylindrical pin is put in its chamber g, of Figure 4, (which is the same us a, of Figure 5,) the groove f comes opposite to k, a small screw nail in the hammer, the point of which being screwed into the groove f, fastens that cylindrical pin in its place, and also regulates the distance which that cylindrical pin is to traverse; viz^t, about one half of a revolution or turn. This cylindrical pin to he turned by the fly i thereon, or it may be turned by a crank, a lever, or a spring; or the groove f on the cylindrical pin may be cut entirely round its circumference, in which case the said pin may be turned one entire round, and will have the same. effect as the foregoing in turning an half round to and fro. k, on Figure 4, is a cap or cover to close the top of the magazine, or it may have a stopper pressed or screwed into if, as at l, Figure 5,and to guard against accidents from explosion having a screwed cover or stopper; a safety valve may be made on the back of the magazine, as will be described in Figure 22. But I consider it almost impossible for an explosion to happen in the above described magazine hammer.© m, Figure 5, is a small stud in the seat of the hammer placed between the holes d, d, the object of which is to direct the powder or refuse from the powder which is blown from the touch-hole by the discharge from getting by the right hole d, to the cylindrical pin to clog it, the left hole d. being nearer the touch-hole, and when the hammer is open at a larger angle from it is less liable to receive the powder or refuse.of the powder from the charge.. Fig. 3; is a poli-chambered breach having nine chambers (but it may be constructed to have fewer or more chambers;) each chamber contains a charge-of powder and ball or shot the dotted lines n, shew the cavities of each of these chambers, and the points o the touch-holes to each chamber. p, are male screws on the end of each chamber. q, are indented ratches or notches. r, is a center hole, on which the piece, Fig. 8,is turned, and each chamber is in succession moved to come into a straight line with the barrel. The dotted marks s, are holes indented on the opposite side of the metal, the use of which will be herein-after: described, on Fig. 3, being put in its place, and forming a part of Fig. 1. Now refer also to Fig.2, which is the left side of Fig. 1, (with difference only of the position of box l/l, and clip or coupling box v, to be noticed in the sequel). t, on Fig. 2, is a pin which passes through. the hole 7, of Fig.8 and is screwed into the plate of the lock, and is the center on which the chamber Fig. 8, turn u, is Fig. 8, in its place on the stock, and is a spring ketch,the point of which a/l, drops into the holes s, of Fig. 3. b/l, is the center on which it acts. e/l, is. a spring on the under part of it which passes on the stock. d/l,is a button top, which being pressed upon disengages the end or point a/l, from the holes s (described in Fig. 8, as being on the opposite side of that piece, i.e., on the side of it towards the left side of the stock). I have before noticed that n on the stock is Fig. 8, in its place; and by looking at Fig. 8, and 1, on Fig. 2, it is obvious that a/l, and s come in contact. The purpose of Fig. 8, or u, is to regulate each of the chambers to be in an exact ling with the barrel; and the holes s, are at distances from each other accordingly. v, Fig. 1, is a coupling box, cap, or clip, having on its interior a female screw corresponding to the male screws p, on the ends of the chambers, and to the male screw on the end of the barrel; when this coupling box or clip is entirely upon the barrel the chambers arc disengaged from it, and at liberty to be moved, and when this coupling box or clip is partly on the barrel, and partly on the end of one of the chambers, that chamber is thereby connected to the barrel. Here it may be proper to remark that Fig. 2, shews this coupling box, cap, or clip v, entirely on the barrel, discovering the joint between the barrel and the chamber where they come in contact. and that Fig 1, shews the coupling box, cap, or clip in part on the barrel, and in part on the end of the chamber concealing their points of contact, and discovering at one end of the clip a part of the screw on the barrel, and at the other end of the clip a part of the screw on the end of the chamber. This coupling box, cap, or clip, is to he turned by the nob or fly y, and the screws are of that pitch or number of threads that half a turn moves it the distance required. z, is the center of the trigger, and the trigger is continued to h/l and i/l; h/l being the end to be acted upon by the finger (the seer of the lock acts in the usual way), at the end of {is a stud to fall into the ratches or notches q, by means of which, on the end h/l being pressed downwards, the stud at i/l is pressed upwards, and being in one of the ratches or notches q forces the chambers successively up, each in a right.line with the barrel. The end or point a/l, of Fig. 8, (or u,) adjusts the distance each chamber is to be moved by dropping into the holes s; and the coupling box, cap, or clip v, being turned on the screw p of the chamber then secures it in its place. k/l is merely a stay on the plate of the lock to guide the prong of the trigger towards i/l, which is a spring to facilitate the stud at i/l passing from ratch to ratch q, on the end of the trigger h/l being pressed upwards. a/l is a box or cover to enclose the chambers, and to secure the charges from being displaced by the concussion from the discharges; it acts on a hinge or joint at n/l. m/l is an aperture in the cover to permit the action of stud i/l; and n/l is a spring ketch on which n/l fastens; therefore, if by any accident the powder in any of the disengaged chambers should explode, the consequence would be only throwing open that box.

To comprehend Fig. 9, the inspection of the Figure, and a reference to the description already given of it and of its similar part in Figure 1, and of the corresponding action of the handle to he described in Fig. 35, is presumed to he sufficiently explanatory. When a small number of chambers are used the handle may be found to be more convenient to turn the chambers by than the mode described in Fig. 1. N.B. The handle and two extra chambers are represented by dotted lines on the Figure. Figures 10 to 16 represent the mode of constructing the locks, washers, &c., to secure the powder of the priming and charge from moisture. There is opposite to the touch-hole of the barrel 2 hole a, through the plate of the lock into the pan; the pan is formed with an elevated lip or rim b, 4, b, b; the seat of the hammer is hollowed out c, c, leaving. a projecting rim or lip d, d. d, d, the interior of which is of the size to admit the exterior or rim or lip b, J, b, b, of the pan, and embraces it when the hammer is shut down upon the pan. On the out side of the rim or lip d, 4,, b, is a ledge e, e, e, e, for the lip or rim d,d, d, d, of the hammer to fall upon, and on that ledge is placed a washer of leather or other clastic substance f; f, f, which, being pressed by the rim d, d, d, d, of the hammer, forms a tight joint to them. The washer f, f, f, may be either continued round the plate of the lock to some distance beyond the hole « in the plate, having a hole g through it, leaving a communication from the pan to the touch-hole (or a separate washer, to be hereafter described, may be used to that part); also the washer f, f, f, to be left long enough at the other end to turn over that part of the pan, and he fastened to it by a screw or pin h, on the drawing of the washer f, f, f; or an indenture (-) may be made in either the plate of lock at i, or on the barrel, or partly in each, to receive a separate washer, as Fig. 14, k, (.) and the plate of the lock pressing the elastic washer between it and the barrel makes the joint between them air-tight. The drawing of this pan is of a cylindrical or barrel form, with an oblong cavity, hut it may be made of any other for. Fig. 10/B represents it an oval. Or the rim of the pan b, b, b, b, may be a separate piece, as l, Fig. 13, in the form of a box, somewhat smaller than the cavity of the ledge e, e, e, e, as represented by x; and the washer being introduced into the cavity x of the ledge e, e, e, e, Fig. 12, and Fig. 18, also pressed into the cavity x, will fasten the washer in its place, to he turned down on the ledge e, e, e, e, and the more effectually to secure the washer the ledge e, e, e, e, may be jagged, and the points of the jaggs will indent themselves into the washer. In these modes the powder of the priming and charge is secured from moisture, and the washer is fastened on the ledge of the pan, and the washer is not exposed to the flame from the powder.

Another mode of making a water-tight pan is its being cylindrical, as Fig, 15; m, m, the diameter, with a cylindrical tube cover; n, n, a section of its interior diameter or concavity to admit m, m, and be fitted exactly thereto, the one being ground into the other, the cover having an opening on it o, corresponding to the. opening. or cavity of the pan p. The cover is fastened on the pan by the male screw q, at the end of the pan coming into the female screw r, in the cover; and the cover being turned on the pan by the fly s, into the position where the opening in each are opposite; leaves the pan open, and when the cover is turned to have its opening away from the opening in the pan the opening of concavity of the pan p will then be surrounded and shut up by the cover; or, as in the Drawing, Fig. 16, (of which part. of it t, t, is a section,) by placing a spiral spring, as represented, (or other spring.) in the cavity of the cover, it will move the cover off the opening or cavity in the pan; and when the cover is pressed on the pan to enclose it, it is there fastened by a spring u, (or a pin,) coming into a notch or hole (.) made on the seat of the hammer to receive it, by which means the instant that the hammer begins to turn over it disengages itself from the spring or pin u, on the cover, and the cover recedes from the pan, leaving the powder in the pan exposed to the spark from the flint. In each of these two modes an elastic washer: being placed round the pan, and bearing on the plate of the lock, and to be pressed on by the end of the cover, makes the joint between the cover, pan, and plate of the lock air-tight; a separate washer, such as Fig. 14, k, (.) already described, to be placed between the barrel and the inside of the plate of the lock to make that joint also tight. To describe Fig. 17, accurately it is equally necessary, as in Fig. 1, first to describe its component parts; viz^t, Fig. 22. is a section of the hammer, shewing a, an hole in the back of the hammer, through the magazine, for security in case of explosion; it is merely a hole to be closed up by a cock or other stopper, or may be a small flap or door acting on an hinge to be kept shut by the pressure of a spring thereon, and which on explosion” would be opened, and give vent to the explosion. Fig. 23, is a spiral spring and pisten to be placed in the cavity or chamber of Fig. 21. e, is the spiral spring, the upper part of which presses upon the cap or cover k, of Fig. 21, and. the lower part of it on f, a button or cap on the top of the pisten. The other end of the pisten h, i, is made cylindrical, but that part of it i, is filed off on each side about one third of the substance, leaving the periphery of the circular part entire at each edge of the flat surface of that part then left. g,is a small pin through the upper part of h, the remaining cylindrical part to serve as a stop to the pisten. by acting on the shoulder of the opening c in Figure 22. Fig: 21, is a section of the hammer, having the pisten and spring placed in it, shewing the valve formed by the end of the pisten and the hole ¢, in the seat of the hammer. The cap k, is to be screwed or otherwise fastened upon the top of the hammer for the upper end of the spiral or other spring to act upon, by which it is obvious that the end of the pisten being pressed upwards, the flotted or reduced part of it i, being then in the hole c, and occupying only about one third part of the cavity c, that the powder from the magazine will pass through the interstices on each side. of it into the pan. Fig. 19, shews the inner side of the cock, the substance of which is: reduced from l to m, to admit the lever n, which is moveable from l t om, on a center O o, screwed into the cock. p, is a plug, moveable on a center q; r, is a hole or holes, in which the mortice licaded pin s, of Fig. 18, is screwed. Fig. 18, s; is a mortice headed pin fastened on the cock at r; t, is a slip of metal to traverse through the mortice hole ins, the shoulders of it at the end u; to prevent its passing further through that mortice hole, the end r, is fastened to the hammer by the screw pin there represented Ж On Fig. 17, is a hole through the pan to admit p, the plug at the end of the lever on the cock. The hammer and cock, &c., as above described, is represented on the lock in Fig. 17, and thereon is also a spring y, fastened to the fence of the pan, and acting on the lever n, whereby cocking presses up the lever n, and the plug p, at the end of it through the hole † of the pan, and the plug p, pressing on the end of the pisten opens the valve in the seat of the hammer, the hammer being brought over at the same time by the slip of metal t, connected to the cock and hammer, and the priming is deposited in the pan; and so soon as the trigger is pulled the spring y, (as well as the lip of the cock at l,) presses down the lever n, and the plug p, disengaging it from the end of the pisten in the hammer, the point of the pisten resumes it position of closing the valve c, by the force of the spiral (or other spring) in the hammer, and the cocking, &e. may be facilitated by a slip of metal, as z, fastened to the back of the cock, and passing through a mortice on the plate of the lock (or on the stock), and by merely pressing the curved end of that slip of metal the lock will be cocked, the hammer brought over upon the pan, and the priming deposited,”or the priming may be effected in a similar manner by half cocking, from the lever being attached to the plate of the lock, and acting in the same manner as hereafter to be described in Figures 24 and 25; in that case the spring y is to be dispensed with, and in place of it there is a spring to be placed on or under the stay A, to press on that end of the lever to keep the plug steady in its different positions; or the hammer, Figure 4, already described, may be applied to this lock having the crank and stay of Figure 26, added to it. Fig. 20, is a representation of hammer of Figure 17, shewing the face of it, and the manner of priming by pulling up or pressing down the pisten, instead of using the foregoing machinery attached to the cock; the dotted lines shew the interior parts, as before described; and the pisten rod being continued through the cap with a small nob upon it, it is obvious that pulling the pisten up by that nob will have the same effect as its being pressed up by the opposite end; also that if it is preferred as being more convenient to press the pisten down, in place of pulling it up, the spring is to be placed under the button top to press upwards and the forms of h and i, the valve end of the pisten, to be reversed, i. e. the flatted part i to be towards the magazine. Figs. 24, 23, 26, and 27, represent the manner in which a slide may be constructed to close up the touch-hole. Fig. 25, is a lock at cock, shewing the touchhole a open. (Fig. 24, is a Jock with the cock down, or at bearer, shewing the touch-hole then closed.) J, is a lever acting on a center pin c, fastened on the plate of the lock. d, is a pin passing through an opening (shaded dark) in the plate of the lock, and is attached to the slide l, of Figure 26, in the interior of the lock. The cock has a notch in it from e to f, so adjusted that the lip f acts on the end of the lever J, from half cock to whole cock, thereby pressing it up, and consequently bringing down the opposite end: to which the slide I is attached, and opens the touch-hole; and the lip e is so adjusted that on the flint having struck the hammer, the lip e then comes in contact with the lever b, near c its center, and by pressing it down instantly moves up the slide l, to close the touch-hole; and: the slide so closing up the touch-hole remains there at half cock, as is apparent from inspecting the Figure, for the lip f does not come in contact with the. end of the lever d, to move the slide until the lock is half cocked h, is a stay merely to keep the lever in its place, but a spring may be placed on the inside of that stay-or on the plate of the lock, which by pressing on the side of the lever will keep it more steadily there, and without otherwise affecting its action. Fig. 27, is a simpler mode of a slide to cover the touch-hole, but in that way the touch-hole will be open when the cock is down (or at bearer), and-shut only when at half cock and whole cock, viz., m is a slip of metal attached to the main spring, and is brought up by it on half cocking to cover the touchhole, and in like manner is brought down by that spring as the cock passes from half cock to hearer. Figure 20, represents not only the slide l, to the inside of Figures 24 and 25, but also another mode of a self-priming magazine hammer; it is on the same principle as Figure 4, and furnishes » priming by shutting down the hammer on the pan by means of a crank o being placed on the end of the cylindrical pin; having a pivot or stud on it p, acting on a hole in groove; or brace, or stay r, which is attached to the plate of the lock, whereby that end of the crank is kept stationary, and the movement of the hammer in opening and shutting alters the relative situation of the groove, trough, or cavity in the cylindrical pin (which has been described in Fig. 4); so as to present itself alternately to the powder in the magazine, and to the hole in the seat of the hammer, through which the priming (taken-by the said cavity from the magazine) is deposited into the pan. Fig. 28, is a cover for the flint to a gun lock, of leather, such metal or other material, that the intervention of it between the flint and hammer will prevent their impingency from producing sparks or flame. a, is part of it, in the form of a bag,into which the flint is to be placed. b, is, one side or half of the bag,continued of length to receive the cock pin through it at c, by which the cover is fastened on the flint; when the cover is made of metal it may be fastened by a ring or spring loop from the bag part to come over the cock pin in same manner. Fig. 29, represents the first mode of loading from the breach; the stock is to be continued straight, some distance longer behind the breach than is usual, and the stock is to be made in two pieces, which join or come in contact with each other at a a,,b, b, is the moveable plug or breach pin; it forms a part of or is attached to the bolt e, e, which is a quick screw. f, f, are two poppets or sockets fixed in the stock, having internal female screws corresponding to the male screw on the bolt e, e. g, the end of bolt e e, is firmly fastened to the separated part of the stock b, b,c, c, at b, b; and that part of the stock being turned round by the action of the screw bolt e, e, turning along with it through the poppets f, f, moves the plug d back to the poppet f nearest to it, (as marked in dotted lines,) and consequently the separated part of the stock is also moved backwards, viz., b, b, to b, h. The breach end of the barrel is then open to receive the charge, and when the separated part of the stock b, b, c, c, is turned back into its former position to a, a, and b, b, being in contact they are there fastened by the sliding bolt i, the end of which k, being pressed into a hole or mortice to receive it in the moveable part of the stock, whereby the moveable part of the stock is secured from turning, and consequently the plug d is kept firmly in the end of the barrel. Figure 30, is in principle the same as Figure 29, with this difference, that the stock is not in two parts, and the screw bolt and plug d is turned by a crank handle l, at the end of the said bolt; and when the plug d is in the end of the barrel, the sliding bolt i fastens the crank handle, and consequently the plug d, in its place; the dotted lines on this Figure represent the position of the crank handle, bolt, and plug in the situation the piece is to be charged. Figure 31, differs from Figure 30, in the bolt. being plain, and to slide in the sockets or poppets, and the crank handle is fastener by a stationary stop m, placed on the stock the dotted lines n, shew the crank handle in contact with the stop m. Figures 32, 33, 34, and 35, represent another mode of constructing fire-arms to be loaded at the breach. a, is the touch-hole, and that part of the barrel to be in the usual situation of a touch-hole to the lock; the barrel is continued further back to b; and at b, is closed up in the usual manner by a plug or breach. That part of the barrel from a to b, is square on the exterior for greater strength. c, is an oblong hole or mortice; through that part of the barrel, in length equal to the length of Figure 33, and in breadth equal to the calibre of the barrel, or somewhat more. d, is a round hole transversely through the. barrel and mortice, of a size to fit exactly the pin, Figure 34. Figure 33, is of the form represented; its ends e, and f, segments of a circle, of which h (o) is the centre; the mortice c and it are made to fit exactly; at h (), is a hole to admit the cylindrical pin, Figure 34. Figure 33, being placed in the mortice c, the pin 34 is to be put through, the holes d of the barrel, and h, of Figure 33, (as is represented in Figure 35, a section,:).and fastened in its place by a small pin through them i, on Figure 33, passing through the cylindrical pin 34, at m; or the pin 34, my, at that part where it is to fit in hole h of 33, be square, and the hole A also a square to receive it; and the cylin drical pin, Figure 84, is fastened to the barrel by a small screw k, (.) Figure 32, passing through the metal of the barrel at that part, the point of which coming into groove I, on the cylindrical pin, Figure 34, (and similar to that which has been already described in hammers, Figures 4, and 7.) Figure 35, is a section of the parts above described connected together, and n is a handle to the cylindrical pin 34, which is the axis-on which Figure 33, moves in the holes d, Figure 32. The handle n, being pressed backwards, opens the end of the barrel to receive the charge by the piece, Figure 33, being then in the situation represented; and if a cartridge is used for loading, on the handle n being pressed forwards, the end v will cut off the end of the cartridge in passing up to p, the loaded position. r, is a stationary stop placed on. the left side of the stock to guide the distance which the handle is. to move (or on that stop being removed to allow the piece 38, to pass further up to he cleaned). s, is a spring ketch also on the left side of the stock, the end of which t, to come in contact with the handle, and thereby keep it firm in the loaded position. On the stock there is an indenture or cavity to receive the spring ketch’s, to be pressed into it, and to be then flush or level with the stock, and to allow the handle to pass over that ketch, its end being, then relieved from the handle (also as being an expeditious mode of fastening the handle in its place the instant it is pressed forwards into the loaded position); for so soon as the handle passes over the end of the spring ketch, the end of it t, rising by the spring, will press on the side of the handle. In this manner of loading at the breach, it is effected with facility, expedition, and security, the recoil on discharge being sustained by the breach or plug differing but little from arms on the usual construction; and in loading at the breach, especially rifles, it is not only expeditious but it avoids the powder being exposed to the moisture in the barrel. Figure 36, A is a section of the breach or breach end of the barrel; it is to be of that length that its cavity or chamber will contain the charge of powder and also the ball, and is to be attached to the barrel by the male screw c, c, entering into the female screw d, d, of Figure 13, that part of the breach from f to g (about the length of the size of the calibre of the barrel) to he excavated comically. The largest end of the cone f to f, to be of the same size as the calibre; the smallest end of the cone g to g, being somewhat less than the hall to be used. The ball will, on being dropped in from the muzzle, jam itself into the conical chamber. The chamber h, continued to the anti-chamber i, may be either of the size g tog, or of f to f; (i.e. equal to the calibre,) or it may he excavated to be larger at the end 2, that is to say, larger than the calibre, and it is so’ represented by the dotted lines. A chamber in that form I have found to shoot stronger and with less recore than a parellel chamber k; the touch-hole is also conical, the smallest end towards the anti-chamber i, by which means the flame
from the priming is more certain of being communicated to the charge, and by the rush of the powder exploding there, and in the anti-chamber i, into the charge, it is more certain to be wholly consumed; and if the touch-hole is made in a sloping direction backwards towards the anti chamber i, the powder, &c. which on firing is blown from the touch-hole will take a forward direction, and avoid the inconvenience which a soldier is liable to from his left man’s discharge, and that inconvenience will be still further guarded against by a small stud I, being placed in the barrel behind the touch-hole, having a like inclination (or even greater) than the line of the touch-hole. In loading, the ball is to be used without any wadding between it and the powder, and the powder would be secured by the ball only, but perhaps it would he preferable to have a bit of soft paper wrapped round the ball. There is no occasion for a ramrod-to load, and loading and priming (using the magazine hammer of my invention, (Figure 4,) will be effected in one half of the time requisite to 1oad a musket of the common construction, or by the mode in which Figure C, is a section; a similar effect will he accomplished, even with old muskets, by boring the breach end of the barrel from n to o, somewhat larger than the calibre of the barrel, and introducing a piece of metal. p, p, is a section of it, having a conical chamber in the like direction, as Figure A, and to be there fastened by screws through the barrel, as r, r, whereby the ball would in like manner as in the former jam itself into the cone. Also the chamber s, to contain the powder would be larger than the calibre of the barrel; or the piece p, p, may be fastened into the barrel without any alteration of its calibre; or the same may be effected, but less perfectly, by merely small studs being screwed into the barre), as t, t, t, Figure D, the points of which being a small distance through the interior surface of the barrel would indent themselves into the ball by its impetus in dropping down the barrel, and consequently be fastened to keep it and the powder in their place. If for military purposes cartridges are preferred to loading with a flask, they may be used, viz., having shook the powder into the barrel from the cartridge, and introduce it by the ball end towards the breach, it will, by its weight, assisted by a blow of the butt of the stock on the ground, lodge the ball in its place in contact with the powder.

In witness whereof, I, the said James Thomson, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this First day of July, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and fourteen.


Signed, sealed, and delivered (being first duly stamped) in the presence of

Wm Oman,

14, Tokenhouse Yard, London.

Sam. Thomson,

57, Redcross St, Cripplegate, London.

AND BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the Fourth day of July, in the year of our Lord 1814, the aforesaid James Thomson came before our said Lord the King in His Chancery, and acknowledged theSpecification aforesaid, and all and every thing therein contained and specified, in form above written. And also the Specification aforesaid was stampt according to the tenor of the Statute made for that purpose.

Inrolled the Eleventh day of July, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and fourteen.