LETTERS PATENT to Frederick Tolhausen, Civil Engineer and Patent Agent, of No. 35, Boulevart Bonne Nouvelle, Paris, in the Empire of France, for the Invention of “ Improvements in Revolving Fire-arms.”— A communication from Michel Javelle, resident at No. 54, Rue Beaubrun, St. Etienne, in the Empire of France.
Sealed the 23rd November 1861, and dated the 31st May 1861.
PROVISIONAL SPECIFICATION left by the said Frederick Tolhausen at the Office of the Commissioners of Patents, with his Petition, on the 31st May 1861.
‘ I, Frederick Tolhausen, Civil Engineer and Patent Agent, of No. 35, Boulevart Bonne Nouvelle, Paris, in the Empire of France, do hereby declare the nature of the said Invention for “ Improvement^ in Revolving^Fire-abms,” being a communication from Michel Javelle, a person resident at No. 54, Rue Beaubrun, St. Etienne, in the Empire of France, to be as follows :— These improvements consist in making the barrel on an oscillating; or swivelling principle, so as to allow the cylinder to be removed or drawn out, and thus be loaded with greater facility. By these means the cylinder or breech may be taken off and loaded. When taken off and a certain number of spare cylinders being provided for and loaded beforehand, any number required of shots may be fired by merely inserting a fresh cylinder. The swivelling connexion is effected by a double-hinged link and a bisected nut.
These improvements further afford a means of cocking the hammer in two ways, viz., either by the top or thumb part, or by the detent, also by means of a notched nut or tumbler in the lock. I obtain a dead-lock to prevent the revolver going off; I also arrange the hammer in such manner that when not operated upon, it is concealed in the breech plate, and also that the percussion 5 of the cartridge shall take place in the centre, the breech plate being perforated to that effect.
SPECIFICATION in pursuance of the conditions of the Letters Patent, filed by the said Frederick Tolhausen in the Great Seal Patent Office on the 30th November 1861.
TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, I, Frederick Toleausen, Civil Engineer and Patent Agent, of No. 35, Boulevart Bonne Nouvelle, Paris, in the Empire of France, send greeting.
WHEEEAS Her most Excellent Majesty Queen Victoria, by Her Letters Patent, bearing date the Thirty-first day of May, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, in the twenty-fourth year of Her reign, did, for Herself, Her heirs and successors, give and grant unto me, the said Frederick Tolhausen, Her special licence that I, the said Frederick Tolhausen, my executors, administrators, and assigns, or such others as I, the said Frederick Tolhausen, my executors, administrators, and assigns, should at any time agree with, and no others, from time to time and at all times thereafter during the term therein expressed, should and lawfully might make, use, exercise, and vend, within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Channel Islands, and Isle of Man, an Invention for ” Improvements in Revolving Fire-arms,” a communication to him from abroad by Michel Javelle, a person resident at No. 54, Rue Beaubrun, St. Etienne, in the Empire of France, upon the condition (amongst others) that I, the said Frederick Tolhausen, my executors or administrators, by an instrument in writing under my, or their, or one of their hands and seals, should particularly describe and ascertain the nature of the said Invention, and in what manner the same was to be performed, and cause the same to be filed in the Great Seal Patent Office within six calendar months next and immediately, after the date of the said Letters Patent.
NOW KNOW YE, that I, the said Frederick Tolhausen, do hereby declare the nature of my said. Invention, and in what manner the same is to be performed, to be particularly described and ascertained in and by the following statement:—
The object and advantages of my breech-loading fire-arms are as follows : — First, having the barrel on an oscillating or swivelling principle, so as to allow the cylinder to be removed or drawn out, and thus be loaded with greater facility. By these means the cylinder may not only be loaded separate from the barrel, but also any number of shots may be fired, by having a suitable number of spare cylinders provided and prepared beforehand. The facility for oscillating the barrel also affords greater ease for cleaning the arm.
Second, these improvements further afford a means for cocking the hammer in two ways, viz., either by the top or thumb part, or by the detent, in order to allow aiming well, the same as with fire-arms provided with a double detent, and avoid the deviation of the barrel during the travel of the trigger; on the other hand, by cocking by means of said trigger, the shots may be fired in quick succession when required. These two independent motions are obtained by means of a notched nut forming part of the hammer, and having a suitable internal arrangement.
On the annexed Sheet of Drawings, Fig. 1 represents a revolver of my improved construction in the loaded state; Fig. 2, in the unloaded state. Both Figures shew the exact shape of the revolver.
By turning the lever a and pressing slightly on the barrel the latter is made to oscillate, the fulcrum or pivot being at b; at the same time a second oscillating motion is performed about c, independent of the first one. This latter is for causing the aperture d to divide into two parts, said aperture being ebased. This tapped aperture, when the revolver is closed or ready for firing, receives the screw’ e on the tail part/ of the cylinder g. The tapped aperture opening in two parts allow’3 the barrel to be depressed whenever required, said tapped aperture forming an appendix c1 of the barrel. I thus obtain my object by so arranging the different parts that the swivelling or oscillating arrangement may not impair the solidity of the arm, the barrel being in its normal position screwed on the stem of the cylinder or barrel.
It is superfluous to state that the breech, barrel, or cylinder turns on its axis so as to bring each hole into action successively, the same as iu ordinary revolvers. In order, however, to explain the action of the notched nut in the lock, and at the same time the combined action produced by the two independent motions for cocking the hammer, viz. either by the top part or by the detent, I will describe the modus operandi according to Fig. 3.
The hammer h carries the notched nut afore-mentioned, being made of one piece with it. This notched nut is provided with a projection i, shewn iu dotted lines, on which the small bridle h is placed, the lower end of which is fixed to the trigger m, turning about ml; hence the trigger being made to act, by. taking into consideration that the bridle Je is placed between the projection i and the notch n of the tumbler, this bridle will move the tumbler by means of the notch w, and the hammer is thus cocked by the action of the trigger.
In case the cocking operation is to be performed by means of the top part of the hammer, the projection i actuates the bridle, which latter pulls the trigger, which then takes the position represented in the Drawing, where it is shewn to touch a small detent o, which is free to act on two notches p,pl, p being a safety notch, and pl a stop notch. The hammer being cocked in this manner, upon a slight pressure being applied to the trigger m, the detent o is made to turn and slip out of the safety notch p, and the hammer is made to drop in the usual way by means of a spring r attached to the tumbler. From this description and the Drawings it will appear that these two different ways of cocking the hammer do not interfere with each other.
I would also point out the novel form of this revolver and the particular arrangement relating to the hammer, by which it enters & is partially concealed in a breech plate, as shewn at Fig. 1. I would also remark, that in this improved revolver, percussion takes place in the centre of a cartridge usually provided with a zinc or lead bottom, the breech plate being so perforated as to allow the hammer to strike the centre of the cartridge where the cap is placed.
In witness whereof, I, the said Frederick Tolhausen, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this Twenty-eighth day of November, A.D. 1861.
F. TOLHAUSEN. (l.s.)