UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
HENRY S. NORTH, OF MIDDLETOWN, AND CHAUNCEY D. SKINNER, OF HADDAM, CONNECTICUT.
IMPROVEMENT IN REVOLVING BREECH FIRE-ARMS.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 8,982 dated June 1, 1852.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that we, Henry S. North, of Middletown, and Chauncey D. Skinner, of Haddam, in the county of Middlesex and State of Connecticut, have invented new and useful improvements in the construction of what are usually known as “Revolving or Repeating Fire-Arms;” and we hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof.
We refer to the annexed drawings as a part of this specification.
Figure 1 represents the pistol or gun in its usual position after having been discharged. Fig. 2 represents it with the guard-lever and sliding crotch drawn down for the purpose of revolving and cocking the piece. Fig. 3 represents it with the guard-lever pushed up, leaving it cocked and in a position to be discharged. Fig. 4 represents the back face of the rotating breech with the inclined planes made in triangular form. Fig. 5 represents the sliding crotch with the sliding stud projecting from the front face of the said crotch. Fig. 6 represents the guard-lever with the stud and curved oblong hole by which it is attached to the sliding crotch; also, the oblong axis hole at the forward end of it, by which it is attached to the barrel-plate, the said holes being made curved and oblong for the purpose of allowing the said lever to recede when it is drawn down, thus causing the sliding crotch to be drawn vertically from its usual position. Fig. 7 represents the forward end or face of the lock-frame with the recess (showing its irregular form) for the sliding crotch to work in, allowing it to move vertically and horizontally. Fig. 8 represents the back face of the barrel-plate with the spring in it, which serves to press the breech and crotch back from the barrel. It also serves to prevent the rotating breech from turning backward when the sliding crotch is forced up by the end of it operating against the circular ratchet made on the front face of the rotating breech. It also represents the studs and mortise to which the axis of the guard-lever is fixed; also, the hole where the charges are loaded into the rotating breech and the hole where the barrel, is attached to said plate. Fig. 9 represents the link connecting the guard-lever with the hammer. Fig. 10 represents the hammer. Fig. 11 represents the front face of the rotating breech, with the six chambers to receive the charges. At the end of each chamber, where they connect with the barrel, is a recess countersunk in such manner as to form a double connection with each chamber and the barrel, viz: A portion of the rotating breech is made within the recess to project and fit tight into the chamber of the barrel, and the outside circle of the recess is made to fit the outside circle of the barrel, thus forming a double connection between the breech and the barrel. By means of the recesses and connection with the barrel made in this way a partition is formed between each chamber of the rotating breech, which serves to prevent lateral fire (when the piece is exploded) in case the connection between the breech and barrel should not be perfectly tight, thus rendering it safe and secure, and not liable to explode more than one charge at a time. It also represents the axis-hole and the circular ratchet around said axis-hole.
A represents the rotating chambered breech, made of steel or other metal, in the front face of which is made six chambers (marked 1) to receive the charges. Through the center of the revolving breech is made a hole, 2, for its axis. Around the axis-hole is a circular ratchet, r, on which a spring operates for the purpose of holding it to its place, and to prevent its turning backward when the sliding crotch is forced up to its place. On the back face of the rotating breech are six inclined planes, made in a triangular form and marked 3, made for the purpose of rotating the breech by the operation of the sliding stud 4, projecting from the front face of the sliding crotch B, acting upon the inclined planes, so that by drawing down the sliding crotch B by means of its connection with the curved oblong hole 5 in the guard-lever C the said breech shall be rotated sufficient to bring a located chamber in line with the chamber in the barrel.
B represents the sliding crotch 3 and its sliding stud 4, which is made of iron or steel, and is intended to hold the rotating breech to its place, sustain the recoil when fired, and rotate the breech when drawn down. The crotch is moved to and from its place by the guard-lever C. At the lower end of the crotch is a mortise, 6, by which it is connected with the guard-lever C by means of a pin or screw passing through a hole in the mortise and the curved oblong hole 5 in said guard-lever.
C represents the guard-lever, the back part whereof, 7, forms the bow of the guard which covers the trigger 8. At the forward end is an oblong hole, 9, which serves for its axis and to connect it with the barrel-plate. Back from said axis, and near where the curve or bow which covers the trigger commences, is a stud and curved oblong hole, 5, made to fit the mortise 6 in the sliding crotch, so that the guard is made to operate as a lever to draw the crotch from and to move it to its place. Back from the curved oblong hole 5 is an axis-hole, 10, to which a link, D, is attached, connecting it with the hammer E, thus causing the mainspring 11 to hold the guard-lever and crotch firmly up to their places, and also to admit of the piece being cocked by drawing down the guard-lever.
D represents a link, made of iron or steel, at the lower end of which is made a hole, 10, which serves as an axis and to connect it with the guard-lever. The said link is designed to connect the guard-lever and hammer together.
E represents the hammer, the back end, 12, of which is formed in such a manner as to keep the link from becoming detached, but still allowing it to slide up and down freely when the hammer is cocked.
F represents the lock-frame, made of iron or other metal. In the forward end or face of it is made a recess, 13, of irregular form, for the sliding crotch to work in, the upper part (marked s) projecting forward for the purpose of inclining the crotch and rotating breech forward, and connecting it with the barrel when the crotch is pressed up. The lower part (marked T) is sunk deeper into the face of the back frame than the upper for the purpose of allowing the sliding crotch aid rotating breech to recede when the said breech is retracted from the barrel. A little distance back from the front part of the lock-frame, and on the lower side of it, is a stud and mortise, 14, to which the trigger 8 is attached; also a long mortise, 15, through which the link D passes. On the upper side of the lock-frame, and over the trigger, is a stud and mortise, 16, through which the hammer passes, and to which it is attached.
G represents the barrel-plate, to the upper part, 17, of which the barrel is attached with its back end projecting through it to meet the chambers of the rotating breech. At the center of the plate is a hole, 18, through which the bolt which forms the axis of the rotating breech passes. A little below and one side of the center is a hole, 19, where the cartridges or powder and balls are entered to the chambers of the rotating breech. At the lower part of it the studs and mortise 20 are made, to which the axis of the guard-lever is attached. On the back face of it and the part which comes next to the chambers of the rotating breech is fixed a spring, 21, the end of which presses against the front face of the rotating breech, and which serves to press the breech and crotch back from the barrel, thus leaving the breech free to be rotated. It also serves to prevent the rotating breech from turning backward when the sliding crotch is forced up by the end of it operating against the circular ratchet made on the front face of the rotating breech. On the periphery and near the back end of the rotating breech are six recesses, (marked 22,) in which are made the touch-holes leading to the chambers of the rotating breech. The said recesses are made to receive each a disk, one side of which is covered with percussion-powder. The said disks are to be pressed into the recesses with the side on which the percussion-powder is placed to come in contact with the touch-holes for the purpose of priming.
By using disks for priming instead of percussion-caps the rotating breech is not liable to be clogged by particles of copper blowing off from the priming, so that the breech will not rotate, as is the case when caps are used, and the recesses in which the disks are placed will prevent lateral fire, so that when a disk is exploded the fire from it cannot communicate with those which are contiguous.
To load a firearm thus constructed, draw down the guard-lever so as to bring the hammer to the half-cock, which will cause the rotating breech to be retracted from the barrel, and left free to be rotated toward the right by the hand, so that each chamber may be loaded by turning it to the hole 19 in the barrel-plate. This being done and the chambers loaded, place the disks in the recesses and press them in tight.
What we claim as our invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is—
The construction of the sliding crotch, substantially as described, to enable it to perform the double purpose of revolving the breech and wedging it up against the barrel, and the combination of the sliding crotch and guard-lever, constructed and arranged as specified, by which the breech is rotated, wedged forward, and the gun cocked by one motion back and forward of the trigger-guard or its equivalent, substantially as above described.
Middletown, Connecticut, March 30, A.D. 1852.
HENRY S. NORTH.
CHAUNCEY D. SKINNER.
In presence of—
Enoch C. Ferre,